1. Mid-course assessment of the impact of the Salinity Ingress Prevention Programme of Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (India).
Sponsoring Agency : AKRSP India (European Union)
Project Director : Dr. Shital Lodhia
Project Ream : Ms Mahua Bannerji and Ms Jyotika Shah
The SCALE programme implemented by AKRSP(I) included a number of innovative solutions to the regional specific problems of the rural poor. It emphasized the involvement of local people, particularly the poor, women and the underprivileged in the process of conceptualizing, implementing and the managing projects and focused on community based management of land, water and forest resources. Prevention of salinity ingression is one of the themes included under SCALE programme for the geographical area of the coastal Saurashtra comprising of Mangrol block in Junagadh district. CFDA, in its base line survey during 2003-04, has already developed a framework for assessment and prepared the list of indicators to measure the output and outcome of the project. This study is for a mid course assessment of the programme in order to assess the effectiveness of ongoing interventions.
The study is a unique study in the sense that it has tracked the same households and assessed the long term impact of the interventions.
Output : The report on the assessment has been submitted to AKRSP (I)
2. Multiple Impacts of Droughts in a Major State in India (Gujarat)
Sponsoring Agency : Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi
Project Team : Prof. Indira Hirway and Dr Anil Roy
Drought is one of the most frequently occurring national disasters in India. With its increased frequency and expanded coverage in the recent years, about one third of the country is either drought prone or under desert areas. These areas are lagging behind in agriculture and also in overall economic growth. They experience wide year-to-year fluctuations in agricultural production and incomes and have a relatively high incidence of poverty. The study examines the multiple impacts of droughts, i.e. impact on agricultural growth, poverty and human development, environmental resources and on the regional economy in Gujarat. It assesses the different policies and programmes of the government and makes recommendations to promote agricultural growth and diversification as well as for integrating DPAP and DDP areas in to the mainstream development.
Output : The final report has been submitted to the Planning Commission, Government of India.
3. Preparing two papers on Coastal Salinity and Related Issues in India
Project Agency : People Learning Centre and Utthan
Project In-charge : Prof. Indira Hirway
Project Associate : Dr Shital Lodhia, Ms. Alka Raval and Dr. Sanjay Rode.
Salinity of land and water is an acute problem in many states of India, particularly in the coastal areas where processes of salinity ingression and salinity intrusion are major contributory factor. Climate change and the consequent sea water rise are also seen as an important factor affecting the salinity levels. The issue of salinity has remained a major concern for coastal states, as it has impacted on the life and livelihood of coastal population in the country. A great variation in salinity is observed across the different coastal states with respect the extent, nature, causes and impact of salinity. There is a need to have comprehensive view of coastal salinity to have a proper understanding of this important phenomenon. This understanding will provide useful insights into the problem, and help in formulating policy and programmes to deal with salinity effectively, and to protect and promote livelihood of in salinity affected areas.
Before an in-depth study is conducted to acquire a good understanding of coastal salinity in the different coastal states in India and its multiple and different impacts on livelihoods in the different states, it is necessary to acquire a broad understanding of the nature of salinity and its impact on people’s livelihood in the country. Under this project therefore two exploratory papers are prepared with a view to understanding the nature and dimensions of coastal salinity in India and examining its multiple impacts on livelihood of coastal population in our coastal states.
Outputs: Two Papers
- Status of Salinity and its Impact on Livelihood in Coastal India: An Exploratory Exercise, by Indira Hirway, Shital Lodhia, Alka Palrecha and Sanjay Rode, 2009
- Knowledge Mapping of Organizations Working on Coastal Livelihood Issues by Shital Lodhia, 2009
4. Risk to Resilience: Assessing the Cost and Benefits of Disaster Risk Management to meet the Needs of Vulnerable Communities in South Asia. – Scoping Paper
Project Leader : Dr. Sara Ahmed, Visiting Faculty, CFDA
Collaboration with : Dr. Shital Lodhia, CFDA
The project is a scoping paper on disaster in Gujarat. It has critically reviewed the literature on climate change and analyzed the data on climate induced disasters and their implications on state socio-economic condition. It has also analyzed the response of the state and society towards disaster management.
5. Valuation of Mangroves Resources in Gujarat
Study In charge : Prof. Indira Hirway
Research Associate : Mr. Subhrangsu Goswami
Sponsoring Agency : Gujarat Ecology Commission, and Indo Canadian Environmental Facility, New Delhi
Mangroves are salt tolerant forest eco-systems found mainly in inter-tidal regions on seacoasts. They play a very important role in the economy as well as in the ecology of coastal regions. Over the years, there has been a severe depletion and degradation of mangroves in Gujarat. It is important to compute the value of the losses experienced by the state economy due to the depletion and degradation of mangroves, particularly when the conventional national/state domestic product data exclude these losses, and as a result give wrong signals for economic policy making. This study estimates the direct and indirect use value as well as the non use value of the depletion and degradation of mangroves that Gujarat state has experienced during the past two decades.
The study was presented to experts at Gujarat Ecology Commission, Vadodara as well as at GEER Foundation, Department of Environment and Forest, Gandhinagar in 2006.
Output : Valuation of Coastal Resources: The Case of Mangroves in Gujarat, Indira Hirway and Subhrangsu Goswami, Academic Foundation, New Delhi, 2007
6. Drought Policy in Eastern Indian States –Chhatisgarh, Orrisa & Jharkhand
Research Team : Prof. Indira Hirway and Dr. B.K. Sahu
Sponsoring Agency : International Rice Research Institute, Philippines
Droughts in India are usually discussed in the context of the states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharasthra etc. However, droughts are also severe, with multi-dimensional impact on the life and livelihood of people in the eastern Indian states of Orissa, West Bengal, Chhatisgadh, Bihar and Jharkhand, where rainfall is high and water resources are ample. Since most of the states are among the poorest states of India, the impact of drought tends to be severe on the population, particularly these belonging to weaker sections. These states need a sound drought policy to face the uncertainties and the related problems faced by the economy as well as people.
This study has examined the nature and frequency of droughts in Orissa and its multiple impacts on the life and livelihoods in Orissa. The study has also formulated an outline of a strategy for addressing droughts in Orissa – by strengthening the livelihoods of people and by diversifying the risk of droughts.
Output : The report has been submitted to IRRI Manila and it is incorporated as a separate chapter in the final report on the large study edited by S. Pandey, H. Bhandari and B. Hardy (Economic Costs of Drought and Rice Farmers’ Coping Mechanism, IRRI, 2007)
7. Study of Baseline Survey of Salinity Ingress Prevention Theme under the Scale Programme of AKRSP
Research Team : Dr. Shital Lodhia and Mr. Harpreet Singh
Sponsoring Agency : Aga Khan Rural Support Programme – India, Ahmedabad
Shifting their strategy towards a livelihood-based approach from an exclusive natural resource management focus, AKRSP (I) launched SCALE (Sustainable Community based Approaches for Livelihood Enhancement) programme in February 2002. Prevention of salinity ingression is one of the themes included in SCALE programme for the geographical area of the coastal Saurashtra comprising of Mangrol block in Junagadh district. The study conducted by CFDA generated base line picture to establish baseline values for the important indicators against which achievements obtained as a result of SCALE programmes interventions can be measured. The main objective of the baseline survey is to critically assess the status of salinity ingression and its impact on livelihood, as well as to study current practices to mitigate the salinity problem in AKRSP(I)’s operational region in Mangrol taluka.
Output : The report has been submitted to AKRSP (I).
8. Impact of Agricultural Policy and programmes on Women Farmers and Agricultural Labour.
Project In-charge : Dr.Darshini Mahadevia
Research Associate : Dr. Niti Mehta and Mr. Vimal Khawas
Sponsoring Agency : United Nations Development Programmes (UNDP), New Delhi
This study is a gendered analysis of the State Agricultural Policies over time, with a focus on the impact of these policy measures on women farmers, in all categories of farm households. It includes, a review of the policy documents, field visits, and discussions with NGOs working in this area and primary survey in selected locations. The study analyzes the impact of agricultural policies on women’s lives in terms of (i) employment, (ii) ownership of assets, (iii) wages and incomes, (iv) cash in hand, (v) decision-making, (vi) development opportunities for the girl child, and (vii) time-spent in various activities. The detailed analysis of impacts of these policies on women’s lives was carried out through household/individual level questionnaire surveys canvassed over 600 households.
Gender Budgeting – Impact of Policies and Programmes on Women of Small and Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labour Households by Darshini Mahedevia, CFDA 2005
Output : The report based on the study was submitted. Working paper by CFDA as well as Discussion Paper by UNDP has been published.
9. Environment, Employment and Sustainable Development: A Study in Three Indian States
Study In-charge : Prof. Indira Hirway & Dr. P. Terhal [Erasmus University-Rotterdam, Netherlands]
Sponsoring Agency : Indo-Dutch Programme on Alternatives in Development, IDPAD, ICSSR, New Delhi
- Centre for Social Studies, Hyderabad and
- NB Centre for Development Studies (ICSSR Centre), Bhuwaneswar, Orissa
This study was conducted in three states in India, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Orissa. It examines, at the conceptual level as well as at the empirical level, the relationship between environment, employment and sustainable development in three diverse environmental situations in the three states. The coastal region of Gujarat, the dry regions Of Andhra Pradesh and the forest region of Orissa have been taken up for empirical case studies. Dr. Shital Lodhia (CFDA, Gujarat), Dr. G C Kar and DR. Shiblal Maher (N C Centre For Development Studies, Bhuvaneshwar) and Dr. G Mitra (Centre For Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad) participated in the research.
Output: Report submitted to ISCCR (IDPAD) on Environment, Employment and Sustainable Development: Understanding the Linkages, by Indira Hirway and Piet Terhal. Supported by E H Kar, Shital Lodhia, Shiblal Meher and G Mitra, CFDA, 2003
Paper published: Environment, Employment and Sustainable Development: Understanding the Linkages, in India in a Globalising World: Some Aspects of Macro-economy, Agriculture and Poverty, edited by R Radhakrishna, SK Rao, S Mahendra Dev and K Subbarao, Academic Foundation, New Delhi, 2006
10. Quick Valuation of Depletion and degradation of Environmental Resources in Gujarat
Study In-charge : Prof. Indira Hirway
Research Associate : Ms.Noopur Pathak
Sponsoring Agency : Gujarat Ecology Commission, Vadodara
This study presents the quick valuation of the depletion and degradation of major environmental resources that has taken place during the 1980s and 1990s. The study uses the Physical Inventory and Accounting of Environmental Resources prepared by CFDA in the earlier study. The present study, therefore, gives no physical data on environmental resources except when it is necessary to do so.
This quick accounting uses secondary data on environmental resources. It also uses the available studies on environmental accounts, which are relevant to Gujarat situation. The report is divided into six sections: (1) Introduction and methodology, (2) water resources: drinking water, (3) water resources: agriculture and industries, (4) forest resources, (5) land resources, (6) coastal resources, (7) pollution of natural Resources and (8) concluding remarks and emerging lessons.
Output : Quick Valuation of Depletion and degradation of Environmental Resources in Gujarat, Gujarat Ecology Commission, Vadodara, 2002
11. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting: A Study in Gujarat: Physical Accounting of Resources
Study In-charge : Prof. Indira Hirway
Research Associate : Ms.Madhvi Patel and Ms.Noopur Pathak
Sponsoring Agency : Gujarat Ecology Commission, Vadodara
Any exercise for compiling Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts (IEEA) consists of two major steps, namely compilation of physical accounts of natural resources which includes renewable and non-renewable resources, ecosystems and biodiversity, and the valuation of physical gains and losses in the form of Satellite Accounts of National Income Accounts. This study essentially compiles physical accounts of natural resources of Gujarat for the period 1980 – 2000, within the overall framework of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts. The project involved physical accounting of water resources, forest resources, land resources and air resources in Gujarat between the periods from the early eighties to late nineties.
Output : Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting: The Case of Gujarat by Indira Hirway, Madhavi Patel and Noopur Pathak, Gujarat Ecology Commission, 2000.